Revista Adolescência e Saúde

Revista Oficial do Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente / UERJ

NESA Publicação oficial
ISSN: 2177-5281 (Online)

Vol. 15 nº 1 - Jan/Mar - 2018

Original Article Imprimir 

Páginas 58 a 65


Physical activity associated with health-related fitness in adolescents

Actividad física asociada a los componentes de la aptitud física relacionada a saluden adolescentes

Atividade física associada aos componentes da aptidão física relacionada a saúde em adolescentes

Autores: Daniel Peterson Rodrigues1; Michael Pereira da Silva2; Edmar Roberto Fantinelli3; Nicolau Augusto Malta Neto4; Jhonatan Gritten Campos5; Wagner de Campos6

1. Master's degree in Physical Education. Member of the Center for Physical Activity and Health Studies, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Curitiba, PR, Brazil
2. Doctor in Physical Education. Master in Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Member of the Center for Physical Activity and Health Studies, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Curitiba, PR, Brazil
3. Master's Degree in Physical Education. Member of the Center for Physical Activity and Health Studies, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Curitiba, PR, Brazil
4. Mastering in Physical Education by the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Graduation in Physical Education. Member of the Center for Physical Activity and Health Studies, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Curitiba, PR, Brazil
5. Mastering in Physical Education by the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Graduation in Physical Education from Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR). Member of the Center for Physical Activity and Health Studies, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Curitiba, PR, Brazil
6. Pos-Doctorate in Motor Development and Sports Studies. PhD in Motor Development and Sports Studies from the University of Pittsburgh (PITT). Pennsylvania, United States. Full Professor, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). Curitiba, PR, Brazil

Correspondência:
Michael Pereira da Silva
Universidade Federal do Paraná
Rua Coração de Maria, 92, Jardim Botânico
Curitiba, PR, Brasil. CEP: 80215-370
(michael.ufpr@hotmail.com)

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How to cite this article

Keywords: Motor activity, physical fitness, adolescent.
Palabra Clave: Actividad motriz, aptitud física, adolescente.
Descritores: Atividade motora, aptidão física, adolescente.

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Verify the association between the level of physical activity (PAL) and the frequency of structured physical activity (FSPA) with some components of health-related fitness (HRF) in adolescents.
METHODS: Was selected a sample of 204 adolescents of both sexes, with aged between 15 to 17.9 years old from the municipality of São José dos Pinhais, metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná. The level and frequency of physical activity were evaluated through a printed questionnaire. Adolescents were divided into active and insufficiently active (≤ 420 min / week), while physical activity frequency represented the number of days per week in which the adolescent performed physical activities outside the school in the presence of a physical education teacher. The components of HRF evaluated were: cardiorespiratory fitness in the Leger test, body composition by BMI calculation and musculoskeletal fitness by vertical jump test, and speed in agility test. A multivariate linear regression was used to verify the association of PAL and FSPA with the HRF components evaluated.
RESULTS: It was verified that FSPA was associated with vertical jump height (0.82, p <0.01)and musculoskeletal power (0,41, p< 0,01).
CONCLUSION: Strategies to facilitate the frequency of structured physical activities in adolescents are necessary to prevent the deleterious effects that the sedentary lifestyle can trigger in physical fitness and in the practice of physical activity throughout life.

Resumen:
OBJETIVO: Verificar la asociación entre el nivel de actividad física (NAF) y la frecuencia de actividad física estructurada (FAFE) con algunos componentes de la aptitud física relacionada a la salud (ApRS) en adolescentes.
MÉTODOS: Fue seleccionada una muestra de 204 adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edad entre 15 y 17,9 años de edad del municipio de São José dos Pinhais, región metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. El nivel y frecuencia de práctica de actividad física fueron evaluados a través de cuestionario impreso. Los adolescentes fueron divididos en activos einsuficientemente activos (≤ 420 min/sin), mientras que la frecuencia de actividad física representó la cantidad de días por semana en la que el adolescente realizó actividades físicas practicadas fuera del turno escolar en presencia de un profesor de educación física. Los componentes de la ApRS evaluados fueron: aptitud cardiorrespiratoria en el test de Leger, composición corporal por el cálculo del IMC y aptitud músculoesquelética por elteste de salto vertical y velocidad en el test de agilidad. Fue utilizada una Regresión lineal multivariada para verificar la asociación del NAF y FAFE con los componentes de la ApRS evaluados.
RESULTADOS: se verificó que la FAFE estuvo asociada con altura de salto vertical (0,82, p< 0,01) y potencia músculo esquelética (0,41, p< 0,01).
CONCLUSIÓN: Estrategias para facilitar la frecuencia de actividades físicas estructuradas en adolescentes se muestran necesarias para la prevención de los efectos deletéreos que el estilo de vida sedentario puede desencadenar en la aptitud física y en la práctica de actividad física a lo largo de la vida.

Resumo:
OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre o nível de atividade física (NAF) e a frequência de atividade física estruturada (FAFE) com alguns componentes da aptidão física relacionada a saúde (ApRS) em adolescentes.
MÉTODOS: Foi selecionada uma amostra de 204 adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 15 e 17,9 anos de idade do município de São José dos Pinhais, região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. O nível e frequência de prática de atividade física foram avaliados através de questionário impresso. Os adolescentes foram divididos em ativos e insuficientemente ativos (≤ 420 min/sem), enquanto que a frequência de atividade física representou a quantidade de dias por semana em que o adolescente realizou atividades físicas realizadas fora do turno escolar na presença de um professor de educação física. Os componentes da ApRS avaliados foram: aptidão cardiorrespiratória no teste de Leger, composição corporal pelo cálculo do IMC e aptidão musculoesquelética pelo teste de salto vertical, e velocidade em teste de agilidade. Foi utilizado uma Regressão linear multivariada para verificar a associação do NAF e FAFE com os componentes da ApRS avaliados.
RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a FAFE esteve associada com altura de salto vertical (0,82, p< 0,01) e potência musculoesquelética (0,41, p< 0,01).
CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias para facilitar a frequência de atividades físicas estruturadas em adolescentes se mostram necessárias para a prevenção dos efeitos deletérios que o estilo de vida sedentário pode desencadear na aptidão física e na prática de atividade física ao longo da vida.

INTRODUCTION

The practice of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents is no longer a form of social interaction1. In the past, adolescents regularly engaged in spontaneous physical activities on the streets (e.g. playing bets, cycling, hopping yellow) and at the same time it was possible to have fun, make friends, and indirectly improve the components of related physical fitness to health2. Nowadays, urban and technological advances (eg computer, television, cell phone) are driving adolescents away from different forms of physical activity and, consequently, cases of associated morbidities (e.g. obesity and diabetes) are increasing throughout life , including childhood and adolescence3.

Studies indicate that during childhood and adolescence the neuroplasticity of the central nervous system makes it a critical period for performing physical activities4,5,6, a positive feedback circuit for the promotion of health-related physical fitness is revealed when the practice of physical activity is enhanced throughout childhood and adolescence. Maintaining active lifestyle over time is greater in people who develop physical abilities (e.g., musculoskeletal power and cardiorespiratory fitness) and physical abilities (e.g., agility) from infancy and throughout adolescence7. Nowadays, children and adolescents who don´t develop physical fitness may not be developing the perception of competence, confidence and pleasure in the practice of physical activity and consequently they will be less likely to become active and healthy adults8,7.

The literature shows consistently that the longer the duration, frequency and intensity of physical activities, the more developed the components of physical fitness related to health9,10,11. However, the studies have not explored the role that the frequency of structured physical activities in the presence of a Physical Education teacher can have in the different components of health-related physical fitness regardless of its intensity and duration12.

Nowadays, the identification of how different behaviors related to the practice of physical activities can influence the components of physical fitness becomes important for interventions to be explored13. Can a physical activity organized and structured by a Physical Education teacher impact the components of physical fitness independently of the habitual level of physical activity of an adolescent? This can be relevant information, for example, for the creation of counter-school programs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the association between the level of physical activity and the frequency of structured physical activity with the components of physical fitness related to health in adolescents of a public school in the city of São José dos Pinhais, Paraná.


METHOD

The sample of the present study was composed of 204 adolescents of both genders (boys = 118) aged 15 to 17.9 years, enrolled in the 9th grade. and 3rd. year of a public school in the municipality of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná.

The present cross-sectional study evaluated the level of physical activity (NAF) and the frequency of structured physical activity (FAFE) outside the school shift and in the presence of a Physical Education teacher15 through a printed questionnaire14. In addition, the components of physical fitness related to health (ApRS) were analyzed, among them: body composition by calculating BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness in the test of going and coming16, musculoskeletal fitness in the test of agility Ilinois17, height (cm) and power musculoskeletal (W / kg) in the vertical jump test.

The body composition assessment was performed using the body mass index (BMI) by calculating the formula (body mass-2), and the classification of the z scores obtained by World Health Organization criteria18. The measurement of stature was measured using a tape measure fixed to the wall, with an accuracy of 0.1 cm, perpendicular to the plane soil, while the body mass was measured on the mechanical scale of Filizola brand, with precision of 0.1 kg. cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the Leger test16 in the school sports court with space measurements defined by cones and with the test cadence defined by recorded sound signal. Musculoskeletal fitness was evaluated by three tests: the time in seconds to perform the Ilinois agility test, vertical jump height and musculoskeletal power measurement on the Jump System Pro® vertical jump platform.

For the categorization of the sample we used the descriptive statistics with averages and standard deviation, where the statistical analysis software used was Stata MP 13.0. Data analysis was performed using a Shapiro-Wilk test and asymmetries in the distribution through skewness and kurtosis. Logarithmic transformations were applied when necessary. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, and frequency distribution were used to describe the variables investigated. The Pearson correlation was used to identify the bivariate association between the level of physical activity, the frequency of structured physical activity and the components of physical fitness. Multivariate linear regression was used to verify the association between the level of physical activity and the frequency of structured physical activity with each component of health related physical fitness controlled by gender, age and z scores of BMI. The level of significance was set at p <0.05.

After approval by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Paraná (CAAE: 59866316.4.0000.0102) and the Superintendence of the Secretary of Education of Paraná (SEED), all parents or guardians of the students received the informed consent form (TCLE) . The adolescents received the term and free and informed consent (TALE) from the school, both in a period prior to the beginning of the evaluations, containing information regarding the administration of the evaluations, study objectives and clarification of possible doubts.


RESULTS

The mean age of the sample was 15.9 ± 1.2 years. On average, boys (16.1 ± 1.3 years) are significantly older than girls (15.6 ± 1.1 years).

Regarding the level of physical activity, 47.55% of the total sample didn´t meet the guidelines of 420 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per week. Among the boys, 41.53% didn´t meet the guidelines and among the girls 55.81% didn´t do more than 420 min / without AFMV.

Regarding FAFE, 38.83% of the boys reported not participating in any form of structured activity and only 16.10% reported structured activities on all days of the week. Among the girls evaluated, only 8.14% reported practicing structured activities every day of the week. In general, adding the data of boys and girls, mean FAFE was 2 times a week (19.61%) and didn´t present significant differences between the sexes.

The number of laps in the back and forth test showed significant differences between the sexes. Boys on average performed a greater course than girls, consequently, maximum oxygen consumption was also significantly higher in boys when compared to girls.

The musculoskeletal fitness of boys and girls also presented significant differences (p <0.001). Both vertical jump height (cm) and relative musculoskeletal power (W / kg) presented higher values among boys. The highest jump height of the boys was 38.8 cm, while the highest jump height of the girls was 23.3 cm. Another test associated with musculoskeletal fitness measured the time of the Ilinois agility test. Once again the boys presented significant differences when compared to the girls, on average the boys were 23 seconds faster than the girls (Table 1).




The results of multiple associations indicated significance between NAF and all components of health related physical fitness. However, FAFE was more significant than NAF in relation to musculoskeletal power (W / KG) and vertical jump height (p≤0.001). The number of laps in the test of Léger et al. (1988) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max) didn´t present significant results with the frequency of structured physical activity (Table 2).




Results of linear regression showed that when NAF and FAFE were controlled by age, sex and z scores of the BMI, only FAFE was significantly associated only with vertical jump height and musculoskeletal power (Table 3).




DISCUSSION

The present study corroborates the scientific literature that indicates that Brazilian adolescents are reporting insufficient levels of vigorous physical activity practice1,3. In the present study, it was found that 47.55% of the adolescents had an insufficient level of PA practice, according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization13. As in other studies, girls had higher levels of physical activity (55.81%). In addition, body composition was also more unfavorable for females. The girls' BMI z scores (0.58 ± 1.00) presented significant differences among boys (0.18 ± 1.28) (p = 0.001). Katzmarzyk et al.19 confirm that public health policies should pay attention to minorities, low socioeconomic status, and especially female subjects.

In the past, the environment of children and adolescents was rich in spontaneous activities, many carried out on the streets. The games naturally stimulated strength, expressed power, developed competence, confidence, and pleasure in the practice of physical activity2. In addition, there were more school physical education classes and less screen time3. This is reflected in the results obtained in this study where the frequency of structured AF didn´t present significant differences between the sexes. The mean of the boys was 1.7 ± 1.8 days / week while the mean of the girls was 1.2 ± 1.6 days / week (p = 0.056). That is, once again it is confirmed that in addition to the level of AF practice being insufficient, the structured AF frequency in both sexes is also low. Recently, some authors8 point out that adolescents who don´t participate in structured AF may never develop aptitude enough to remain active throughout their lives, it also emphasizes that the plasticity of the central nervous system can be compromised by the passive posture that the screen time offers. A systematic review20 concluded that school AF programs are effective in promoting the practice of vigorous AF, especially if the program happens out of school shift and at exactly the moment it is being occupied by screen time.

In several studies21 the tests of cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition are used to represent physical fitness with a whole, however the present study used measures of musculoskeletal power and agility to compose the physical fitness scenario17. The present study found that the reported level of vigorous AF practice was associated with all components of health related physical fitness surveyed. However, the frequency of structured AF practice was not associated with the components of cardiorespiratory fitness.

When comparing the fitness levels between the sexes, the boys showed to be more apt than the girls, with significant difference in all the components of the physical fitness researched. In summary, boys were more fit and more active than the girls in all variables surveyed. Pate et al.22 emphasize that girls perceive differences in aptitude as a barrier to the practice of AF with boys.

An interesting finding of the present study was the fact that the level of AF practice was not significantly associated with any component of health-related physical fitness when analyzed regardless of gender, age and z scores of the BMI. Only the frequency of structured physical activity showed significant associations for musculoskeletal power. The higher the weekly frequency of structured physical activity practice, the higher the vertical jump height (cm) and the higher the relative musculoskeletal power (W / kg).

A limiting factor for cardiorespiratory fitness not to present a significant association with the level of AF practice may be the fact that the school doesn´t have the culture to perform cardiorespiratory fitness tests, doesn´t have a running track and doesn´t have locker rooms. The lack of locker rooms and running track can be seen as a barrier to AFMV. According to the IBGE3, only 1.9% of schools in the Brazilian capitals have an athletics or running track, 28.5% have locker rooms in conditions of use, most of them (66.8%) occur in private schools.


CONCLUSION

The present study verified that the level of habitual physical activity was not presented associated with the components of the physical aptitude of adolescents. However, the weekly frequency of structured physical activities performed in the out-of-school environment and supervised by a Physical Education professional was positively associated with indicators of musculoskeletal fitness (jumping height and relative potency) regardless of gender, age, BMI z scores adolescents. The results suggest that the structured activities practice can offer the intensity and intentionalities necessary for the improvement of components of physical fitness related to adolescents' health. However, further research is needed to better understand how these out-of-school activities can benefit the physical fitness and health of adolescents.


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