Revista Adolescência e Saúde

Revista Oficial do Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente / UERJ

NESA Publicação oficial
ISSN: 2177-5281 (Online)

Vol. 15 nº 3 - Jul/Sep - 2018

Original Article Imprimir 

Páginas 52 a 59


Use of tobacco and other drugs by adolescents from public schools in Pernambuco: a pilot study

Uso de tabaco y otras drogas por los adolescentes de escuelas públicas de Pernambuco: un estudio piloto

Uso de tabaco e outras drogas pelos adolescentes de escolas públicas de Pernambuco: um estudo piloto

Autores: Lidiane Jacinto do Nascimento1; Jamile Francelino da Cruz2; Breno Washington Joaquim de Santana3; Amanda Carneiro Leão Campos4; Viviane Colares Soares de Andrade Amorim5

1. Resident in Pediatric Dentistry at the Institute of Integral Medicine Profesor Fernando Figueira-IMIP. Graduation in Dentistry by the Faculty of Odontology of the University of Pernambuco (FOP/UPE). Recife, PE, Brasil
2. Master in Hebiatría by the University of Pernambuco-UPE. Graduation in Dentistry by the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco (FOP/UPE). Recife, PE, Brasil
3. Graduating in Dentistry by the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco (FOP/UPE). Recife, PE, Brasil
4. Graduating in Dentistry by the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco (FOP/UPE). Recife, PE, Brasil
5. Post-doctoral in Pediatric Dentistry from the University of Iowa (UIOWA). Iowa, United States. Doctor in Pediatric Dentistry from the University of Pernambuco (UPE). Adjunct Professor of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE). Associate Professor at the University of Pernambuco (UPE). Recife, PE, Brasil

Lidiane Jacinto do Nascimento
Rua Dancing Days 116 A. Imbiribeira
Recife - PE, Brasil. CEP: 511803-40
(lidianenascimentoodonto@gmail.com)

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Keywords: Adolescent, tobacco, alcohol drinking, street drugs.
Palabra Clave: Adolescente, tabaco, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, drogas ilícitas.
Descritores: Adolescente, tabaco, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, drogas ilícitas.

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to verify the prevalence and association of the use of tobacco and other drugs by school adolescentsin the city of Olinda, Pernambuco.
METHODS: This is a pilot study of epidemiological character with a transversal design. 202 adolescents participated, aged between 14 and 19 years, of both sexes, duly enrolled in the high school of the state public school system. The data collection was carried out through the translated and validated version for the Brazilian Portuguese of the questionnaire Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The data were tabulated using the Epi-data program, version 3.1. For the analysis of the data was used the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22.0 for Windows.
RESULTS: In relation to licit drugs, about 23% of adolescents surveyed have already tried cigarette, most of them (80,4%) between 15 and 17 years old. Regarding the consumption of alcoholic drinks, most adolescents (66.7%) have already drank at least one dose of alcoholic beverage in their lives, while 43.3% of adolescents have ingested alcohol in the last 30 days. As for illicit drugs, approximately 15% have tried marijuana and 1.5% have used cocaine at least once in their lives.
CONCLUSION: This research showed that the prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use by school adolescents are still high, showing be in many cases the "gateway" to street drugs use.

Resumen:
OBJETIVO: El presente estudio buscó verificar la prevalencia y la asociación del uso de tabaco y otras drogas por los adolescentes escolares del municipio de Olinda, Pernambuco.
MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio piloto, de carácter epidemiológico con delineamiento transversal. Participaron 202 adolescentes, con edad variando entre 14 y 19 años, de ambos sexos, debidamente matriculados en la enseñanza media de la red pública estadual de enseñanza. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de la versión traducida y validada para el portugués de Brasil del cuestionario Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). La tabla de datos se realizó a través del programa Epi-data, versión 3.1. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versión 22.0 para Windows.
RESULTADOS: En relación a las drogas lícitas, cerca del 23% de los adolescentes encuestados ya experimentaron cigarrillo, siendo la mayor parte de ellos (80,4%) entre 15 y 17 años. En lo que se refiere al consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, la mayoría de los adolescentes (66,7%) ya bebieron al menos una dosis de bebida alcohólica en la vida, mientras que el 43,3% de los adolescentes ingirieron alcohol en los últimos 30 días. En cuanto a las drogas ilícitas, aproximadamente el 15% ya experimentaron marihuana y el 1,5% ya hicieron uso de cocaína al menos una vez en la vida.
CONCLUSIÓN: Esta investigación mostró que el predominio del uso de cigarrillo y alcohol por los adolescentes escolares todavía es alto, mostrando ser en muchos casos la "puerta de entrada" para el uso de drogas ilícitas.

Resumo:
OBJETIVO: O presente estudo buscou verificar a prevalência e a associação do uso de tabaco e outras drogas pelos adolescentes escolares do município de Olinda, Pernambuco.
MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo piloto, de caráter epidemiológico com delineamento transversal. Participaram 202 adolescentes, com idade variando entre 14 e 19 anos, de ambos os sexos, devidamente matriculados no ensino médio da rede pública estadual de ensino. A coleta de dados foi realizada através da versão traduzida e validada para o português do Brasil do questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A tabulação dos dados foi realizada por meio do programa Epi-data, versão 3.1. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 22.0 para Windows.
RESULTADOS: Em relação às drogas lícitas, cerca de 23% dos adolescentes pesquisados já experimentaram cigarro, sendo a maior parte deles (80,4%) entre 15 e 17 anos. No que diz respeito ao consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, a maior parte dos adolescentes (66,7%) já beberam pelo menos uma dose de bebida alcóolica na vida, enquanto 43,3% dos adolescentes ingeriram álcool nos últimos 30 dias. Quanto às drogas ilícitas, aproximadamente 15% já experimentaram maconha e 1,5% já fizeram uso de cocaína pelo menos uma vez na vida.
CONCLUSÃO: Esta pesquisa mostrouque a prevalênciado uso de cigarro e álcool pelos adolescentes escolares ainda são altas, mostrando ser em muitos casos a "porta de entrada" para o uso de drogas ilícitas.

INTRODUCTION

According to the Ministry of Health, adolescence corresponds to the age group between 10 and 19 years of age1. It is a phase of great impact on human development, characterized by strong cognitive, emotional, social and biological changes, which expose the individual to risk behaviors and the adoption of new habits inherent in this phase. Among these behaviors can be cited smoking, inadequate nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, and the experimentation of alcohol and other drugs2,3.

Smoking is one of the leading avoidable causes of early death and death in the world. Diseases such as lung, mouth and throat cancers are considered to be the most incidents in smokers and cause serious damage to health4. These diseases impose a heavy economic cost for countries, both in productivity and in terms of direct medical assistance. The use of tobacco is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) a significant obstacle to development gains worldwide5.

In Brazil, studies show the increase in the prevalence of smoking in adolescents, due to the increasingly early age of smoking initiation. There is also a greater likelihood that young tobacco users will become adult smokers, since cigarette dependence generally occurs before age 18.4,6,7.

The WHO points to alcohol as the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world and also as the main drug of choice among children and adolescents. Its experimentation usually occurs early, around 12 years of age and its excessive consumption is one of those responsible for the increase in deaths, mainly in adolescence8,9.

Among the illicit drugs most used by adolescents are marijuana and cocaine. Marijuana, being the most commonly used illicit drug, produces effects that impair motor control and learning, as well as neurovegetative effects. These effects can lead to a drop in school performance which, in turn, can increase anxiety and lead to increased use10-12.

The consumption of these substances brings with it a considerable social and economic burden from the perspective of public health. In this way, knowing the existence or not of the association of the use of these drugs is of great importance, since it will allow interventions on behaviors and risk factors with a view to inhibiting the possible advance in the use of drugs, a vice that is progressively harmful for the adolescent .

The objective of this study was to verify the prevalence and association of the use of tobacco and other drugs by school adolescents in the municipality of Olinda, Pernambuco.


METHODOLOGY

This is a pilot study of a larger, epidemiological and cross-sectional project entitled "Attention to adolescent health in the public services of Olinda". The study was conducted in the municipality of Olinda-PE and its sample was composed of 202 adolescents from 14 to 19 years of age, of both sexes, duly enrolled in the middle school of the state public education network in the current year.

Data collection was done in February 2016, through a questionnaire, which was applied in the classroom, without the presence of the teacher, to avoid confusion for the students. The average application time was 30 minutes.

The instrument used was a translated and validated version for the Portuguese of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)13. The YRBS is a self-administered questionnaire, developed by the WHO, in partnership with the Center for Diabetes Control Prevention (CDC), to monitor health risk behaviors among adolescents. The variables used in this study were removed from questions regarding the modules on tobacco use and consumption of alcoholic beverages and other drugs (Table 1).




For the tabulation of data, the Epi-data program, version 3.1, was used, using the input function to avoid possible writing errors. For the analysis of the data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program, version 22.0 for Windows, was used. Descriptive prevalence and inference analyzes were performed through the chi-square test.

This project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Pernambuco (CEP / UPE), opinion no. 672,711, as recommended by the National Council of Research Ethics, resolution CNS No. 466/2012. It also possesses consent of the Regional Management of North Metropolitan Education. To participate in the study, the framed students sign the agreement term, in addition to receiving authorization from their parents or guardians through the term of Negative Consent.


RESULTS

The majority of the adolescents surveyed was female, between 15 and 17 years old and came from families with incomes up to 2 minimum wages (Table 2).




In relation to licit drugs, about 23% of the adolescents surveyed already had a cigarette and 7% smoked in the 30 days prior to the investigation. The use of cigarettes in life presented significant association with age, being more prevalent in adolescents between 15 and 17 years. There was no difference between the sexes.

With regard to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, most adolescents have already drunk at least one dose of alcoholic beverage in their lifetime, while 43.3% of adolescents ingested alcohol in the past 30 days. With regard to illicit drugs, approximately 15% have already experienced marijuana and 1.5% has already used cocaine at least once in their lives (Table 3).




A statistically significant association was verified between the use in the life of the cigarette and the experience with alcohol by adolescents. Cigarette consumption in the last 30 days has been associated with the consumption of alcohol in life and in the last 30 days (Table 4).




DISCUSSION

The early experimentation of drugs by adolescents can be related to different social, cultural and economic factors. In addition, it is one of the main triggers of situations of vulnerability for this age group8. The misuse of these substances often determines the appearance of other problems, such as respiratory diseases, increased incidence of cancer and risk of accidents. In addition, it brings difficulties not only for the user, but also for his family, school and society in general2,3,6.

In this study, about 23% of the adolescents surveyed already experienced smoking at least once in their lives. According to the data of PeNSE (2015), in the age group of 13 to 17 years, the experimentation was 48%, a much higher number than that found in our sample.

Age, 6.5% of adolescents aged 14 or younger have already experienced cigarette in life. Corroborating with studies conducted by Nader6 eCavalcante14 and who verified the use of cigarettes for the first time at 14.9 years and 12 years, respectively4,10,15,16.

According toTondowski et al.17, cohabitation with fathers or older siblings smokers is associated with the greater likelihood that adolescents will smoke, as well as progress in this use. In this aspect, the family context plays an important role in the young person's life. The fact that at least one parent of smoking is directly associated with the child's smoking. In the same way, the consumption of alcoholic beverages by parents is associated with alcohol consumption during adolescence6,7. In this study, however, it wasn´t possible to evaluate these aspects.

Regarding the current consumption of cigarettes, measured by the consumption occurred in the last 30 days prior to the date of the investigation, this represented 7% of the sample, given very similar to that found in the last PeNSE, where approximately 8, 0% consumed cigarettes in that period. It should be noted that this "current consumption" is relative and should be evaluated with caution, since adolescents are in their first decades of life, experimentation phase and adoption of new habits. In this way, the use of the cigarette in the last 30 days may coincide with your first contact with this drug, not constituting a habit.

Alcohol consumption was the most prevalent substance among adolescents. When it refers to consumption in the last 30 days, the data found represented almost half of the sample (43.3%). The studies observed that its use among adolescents has been quite common in Brazil and in the world6,18,19. According to the latest survey carried out by the Brazilian Center for Information on Psychotropic Drugs (CEBBRID) among students of primary and secondary education in 27 Brazilian capitals, alcoholic beverages and cigarettes have been the substances most consumed by adolescents18.

Currently, alcoholic beverages are present in most social occasions, which facilitate greater access and social incentive consumption. In addition, the media play an important role in the propagation of advertisements on beverages and cigarettes, without adequate warning of their risks, in addition to strengthening the idea of rite of passage to adult life9,14,20. According to Cavalcante et al.14 this drug is considered a gateway for consumption and vice in other drugs, such illicit drugs.

In relation to illicit drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine, there was an association with the use of tobacco both in life and in the last 30 days. A study conducted by Lopesy Rezende19 showed figures close to that of the research (6.3%) in terms of marijuana use. However, the data found in the present study show that almost half of adolescents (48.9%) who have already used cigarettes in their lives have also experienced marijuana. With regard to cocaine, consumption similar to that observed by Lopes and Rezende was verified in his study.

It is important to note that, when questioned about the use of illicit drugs, many adolescents don´t feel safe enough to tell about their experiences. In this way, it is pertinent that this situation be studied by exposing the factors that may influence the use of licit and illicit drugs, so that they can contribute to the decrease of experimentation and consequently of the regular use of these drugs. As well as knowing the hexes that this use can bring in short, medium and long term.The early experimentation of drugs by adolescents can be related to different social, cultural and economic factors. In addition, it is one of the main triggers of situations of vulnerability for this age group8. The misuse of these substances often determines the appearance of other problems, such as respiratory diseases, increased incidence of cancer and risk of accidents. In addition, it brings difficulties not only for the user, but also for his family, school and society in general2,3,6.


CONCLUSION

The search for adolescents' understanding in this phase of transition for adult life is fundamental, providing subsidies so that they can make conscious decisions and aim for their health. This research showed that the prevalences of the use of cigarettes and alcohol are still high and that illicit drugs are still associated with the use of licit drugs. In this way, it is necessary that there be an open dialogue between school, family and adolescents responsible, in which the consumption of these drugs is discussed, emphasizing its negative effects and the consequences that consumption brings.

From this study can be created projects of health promotion actions among adolescents and, in addition to that, the strengthening of family ties in the prevention of risk behaviors among young people and adolescents is an extremely important factor.


REFERENCES

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