Revista Adolescência e Saúde

Revista Oficial do Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente / UERJ

NESA Publicação oficial
ISSN: 2177-5281 (Online)

Vol. 15 nº 3 - Jul/Sep - 2018

Original Article Imprimir 

Páginas 69 a 80


Variables associated with the practice of bullying in a national sample of students

Variables asociadas a la práctica del bullying en una muestra nacional de estudiantes

Variáveis associadas à prática do bullying em uma amostra nacional de estudantes

Autores: Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira1; Jorge Luiz da Silva2; Iara Falleiros Braga3; Flávia Carvalho Malta de Mello4; Rogério Ruscitto do Prado5; Marta Angélica Iossi Silva6; Deborah Carvalho Malta7

1. Doctorate in Sciences (Post-Graduation of Nursing Program in Public Health - EERP-USP). In post-doctoral practice with the Department of Psychology of the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto - FFCLRP-USP. RibeirãoPreto, SP, Brazil
2. Doctorate in Sciences (Post-Graduation of Nursing Program in Public Health - EERP-USP). Professor of the Master's Program and Doctorate in Health Promotion at the University of Franca (UNIFRAN). Franca, SP, Brazil
3. Doctorate in Sciencess (Post-Graduation of Nursing Program in Public Health - EERP-USP). Associate Professor of the Department of Occupational Therapy of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB). João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
4. Doctorate in Sciences (Post-Graduation of Nursing Program in Public Health – EERP-USP). Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5. Doctorate in Preventive Medicine by the Faculty of Medicine at University of São Paulo (USP). São Paulo, SP, Brazil
6. Doctorate in Nursing of Public Health from the University of São Paulo (USP). Free Teacher Professor of the School of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo - EERP-USP. Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
7. Doctorate in Collective Health by the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Associate Professor of the School of Nursing of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Wanderlei A. de Oliveira
Universidade de São Paulo - Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900
Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, sala 72. CEP: 14040-902
(wanderleio@hotmail.com)

PDF Portuguese      


Scielo

Medline


How to cite this article

Keywords: Violence, adolescent health, school health services.
Palabra Clave: Violencia, salud del adolescente, servicios de salud escolar.
Descritores: Violência, saúde do adolescente, serviços de saúde escolar.

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Analyze comparatively data on the practice of school bullying among boys and girls, considering associations between sociodemographic variables, family context, health and risk behaviors.
METHODS: A total of 102.301 students from the 9th grade of Elementary School of all Brasil participated in the study. Data were collected in 2015 through a self-report questionnaire, available on smartphones. Descriptive and multivariate analyzes were developed.
RESULTS: The boys practiced more bullying than the girls, 24.2% and 15.6%, respectively. The practice of bullying was associated in both sexes according to the following variables: age group of 15 and 16 years and over; skin color; studying in private school; feelings of loneliness; insomnia; physical punishment; low parental supervision; use of tobacco, alcohol, and drug testing. The main contribution of the study was that student that identification that students who practice bullying, regardless of gender, suffers and present suffering and present health risk behaviors.
CONCLUSION: The results emphasize the need for antibullying programs that focus on multidimensional aspects, that can be used to guide and subsidize health actions in Brazilian schools.

Resumen:
OBJETIVO: Analizar comparativamente datos sobre la práctica de bullying escolar entre niños y niñas, considerando asociaciones entre variables sociodemográficas, de contexto familiar, de salud y de comportamientos de riesgo.
MÉTODOS: Participaron de la investigación 102.301 estudiantes del 9º año de la Enseñanza Fundamental de todo territorio nacional. Los datos fueron recolectados en 2015 por medio de un cuestionario auto aplicable, disponible en aparatos smartphones. Se desarrollaron análisis descriptivos y multivariados.
RESULTADOS: Los niños practicaron más bullying que las niñas, el 24,2% y el 15,6%, respectivamente. La práctica del bullying se asoció en ambos sexos en relación a las siguientes variables: grupo de edad de 15 y 16 años o más; color de la piel; estudiar en la escuela privada; sentimientos de soledad; insomnio; punición física; baja supervisión parental; uso de tabaco, alcohol y experimentación de drogas. La principal contribución del estudio fue la identificación de que los estudiantes que practican bullying, independientemente del sexo, presentan sufrimiento y comportamientos de riesgo a la salud.
CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados enfatizan la necesidad de programas antibullying con foco en aspectos multidimensionales, pudiendo ser utilizados para orientar y subsidiar acciones de salud en las escuelas brasileñas.

Resumo:
OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente dados sobre a prática de bullying escolar entre meninos e meninas, considerando associações entre variáveis sociodemográficas, de contexto familiar, de saúde e de comportamentos de risco.
MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 102.301 estudantes do 9º ano do Ensino Fundamental de todo território nacional. Os dados foram coletados em 2015 por meio de questionário autoaplicável, disponibilizado em aparelhos smartphones. Análises descritivas e multivariadas foram desenvolvidas.
RESULTADOS: Os meninos praticaram mais bullying que as meninas, 24,2% e15,6%, respectivamente. A prática do bullying foi associada em ambos os sexos em relação às seguintes variáveis: faixa etária de 15 e 16 anos ou mais; cor da pele; estudar em escola privada; sentimentos de solidão; insônia; punição física; baixa supervisão parental; uso de tabaco, álcool e experimentação de drogas. A principal contribuição do estudo foi a identificação de que os estudantes que praticam bullying, independente do sexo, apresentam sofrimento e comportamentos de risco à saúde.
CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados enfatizam a necessidade de programas antibullying com foco em aspectos multidimensionais, podendo ser utilizados para orientar e subsidiar ações de saúde nas escolas brasileiras.

INTRODUCTION

Bullying is a public health problem identified around the world1. It is a type of violence characterized by the repetition and intentionality of aggressions, as well as by the imbalance of power between aggressors and victims2. Various studies document that not only suffer bullying, but also practice it is harmful to students, causing problems in health, psychological functioning and interpersonal relationships3,4. Being an aggressor was associated with negative beliefs about others, insecurity, insomnia, use of snuff, alcohol, other drugs, family violence practice, school evasion, infraction behavior, among others, 5. In addition, the aggressors usually come from family environments marked by conflicts, an aspect that makes them vulnerable, and may contribute to the reproduction of the most aggressive family styles in interactions with colleagues in the school6.

Although many investigations have already been devoted to the study of school bullying, the aggressors were the object of few of them, since, in general, the victims and the process of victimization are prioritized5. In the same way, although gender differences are considered in relation to the prevalence of bullying in most studies, few are those that investigate those differences in relation to other variables associated with the occurrence of this phenomenon in schools. For example, a Canadian study identified an association between bullying and tobacco use only for girls7. Therefore, given the importance of gender in understanding the dynamics of bullying, especially from the figure of the aggressors whose existing data are scarcer in relation to the victims, it is fundamental to better explore the way children and women Girls differ in some aspects associated with the practice of bullying.

The objective of this study was to analyze comparatively data on the practice of bullyingescolar among adolescent girls and boys, considering associations between sociodemographic variables, family context, health and risk behaviors.


METHOD

The third edition of the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2015) is a cross-sectional epidemiological survey, which collected data on school children from the 9th year of the Fundamental Teaching of public and private schools throughout Brazil. It is emphasized that more information on the method and procedures for the definition of the research sampling group can be consulted in a specific publication8.

Participants

The sample was representative of all of Brazil and included cities of the 27 states and the Federal District. 102,301 students participated in the study. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: being a student duly enrolled in the 9th year of the Fundamental Teaching, being present on the day of data collection and agreeing to participate in the research.

Procedures

The questionnaire for data collection was applied collectively in schools during class time. All students present on the date of collection were invited to participate in the investigation. Agents trained by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) administered the application of the instrument that was inserted in smartphones with thematic modules that varied in number of issues. The students received the orientations and answered the instrument whose average application time was 50 minutes.

Instrument

The PeNSE questionnaire addressed the following topics: socioeconomic aspects; social and family context; experimentation and drug use; sexual and reproductive health; violence, safety and accidents; perception of body image; among others. The messaging related to elbullying practiced was obtained by the question: "In the last 30 days, did you make fun of, intimidate or annoy any of your classmates so much that he got hurt, felt offended or humiliated?". The answers were categorized into NO (never, rarely, and sometimes) and YES (most of the time, always).

The conceptual model was considered to be associated with the practice of bullying demographic factors, factors related to mental health (loneliness, insomnia, and not having friends), family situations such as (living with parents, family supervision, family violence, classes) and risk behaviors (use of psychoactive substances) 5. Therefore, associations with the following variables were tested: sex; age; skin color; administrative dependency of schools; family conformation; family supervision; missing classes without authorization; feelings of loneliness; insomnia picture; indication of friendship relationships; and risk behaviors (use of tobacco, alcohol or drugs).

Data analysis

Initially, by means of descriptive statistics, the prevalence of practicing bullying was calculated, according to sociodemographic variables, family context, family violence, mental health and risk behaviors. Subsequently, the bivariate analysis was performed, calculating the unadjusted OddsRatios (ORs), using bivariate logistic regression. Finally, a multivariate regression analysis was performed for the outcome examined, in which the independent variables that were associated with the results were inserted at the p <0.20 level, calculating the adjusted ORs (ORa), with their respective intervals ( 95% CI). The variables with a level of significance of 0.05 were considered in the final model. For all the analyzes, the sample structure and the weights were used to obtain population estimates. The data were analyzed with the help of the statistical package (Package name) (SPSS), 20th version.

Ethical issues

All the guidelines and ethical recommendations of Resolution 422/2012 were observed in the development of the research and the PeNSE was approved by the National Commission of Ethics in Research of the Ministry of Health (CONEP / MS) - Opinion No. 1,006,467 / 2015


RESULTS

Of the total participants, 51.3% were female and 48.7% were male. Most were between 13 and 15 years old (88.6%). The study identified that 19.8% of the students were involved in bullying situations as aggressors. Among children, the percentage of bullying practice was 24.2% and among girls 15.6%. The highest percentage of aggressors was identified among students of private schools (21.2%), before students of public schools (19.5%).

The bivariate analysis indicated that children of 15 years of age practiced more bullying (OR: 1.16, CI: 1.08-1.24) and 16 years or more (OR: 1.09, CI: 1.09- 1.27) (Table 1). Brown children practiced less than others (OR: 0.95, CI: 0.90-0.99). The practice of bullying in children was significantly associated with feeling alone (OR: 1.44, CI: 1.35-1.53), reporting insomnia (OR: 1.58, CI: 1.46-1.70) , take at home (OR: 2.45, CI: 2.33-2.59) and skip classes without authorization from parents/guardians (OR: 1.66, CI: 1.59-1.74) . The use of tobacco (OR: 3.09, CI: 2.86-3.34), alcohol (OR: 2.58, CI: 2.46-2.70) and experiencing drugs (OR: 2.87, IC: 2.70-3.06) were health risk behaviors associated with the practice of bullying. Family supervision was protective for the practice of bullying (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.51-0.55).




In the case of girls (Table 2), the practice of bullying was greater at the ages of 15 years (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17) and 16 years or more (OR: 1.12 , CI: 1.02-1.23) and lower in the ages under 13 years (OR: 0.57, CI: 0.37-0.88). (OR: 1.34, CI: 1.24-1.45), yellow (OR: 1.23, CI: 1.10-1.38), brown (OR): 1.11, CI: 1, 05-1.18) and indigenous (OR: 1.31, CI: 1.14-1.50). The aggressors showed little family supervision (OR: 0.45, CI: 0.43-0.47). The practice of bullyingentre female students was also significantly associated with: feeling lonely (OR: 1.58, CI: 1.50-1.66); (OR: 1.73, CI: 1.63-1.84); not having friends (OR: 1.21, CI: 1.07-1.37); (OR: 2.56, CI: 2.42-2.71) and skipping classes without authorization from parents / guardians (OR: 2.21, CI: 2.10-2.33). In most cases, the use of tobacco (OR: 3.49, CI: 3.22-3.79), alcohol (OR: 2.51, CI: 2.39-2.64) and experiencing drugs (OR: 2.95, CI: 2.76-3.16), as well as in the case of children, were health risk behaviors associated with the practice of bullying. Family supervision was protective for the practice of bullying (OR: 0.45, CI: 0.43-0.47).




In the final model (Table 3), they remained associated with the practice of bullying entre children (greater possibility of practicing): the age group 16 years and older (p <0.001); study in the private school (p <0.001); feels lonely (p = 0.002); take at home (p <0.001); (p <0.001), alcohol (p <0.001) and drug experimentation (p <0.001). Family supervision (p <0.001) reduced the possibility of bullying. For girls, they remained as associated factors and increased probability of practicing: ages 15 years (p <0.001) and 16 and more (p <0.001); skin color black (p <0.001) and brown (p = 0.003) study in the private school (p <0.001); feels lonely (p = 0.002); take at home (p <0.001); (p <0.001), alcohol (p <0.001) and drug experimentation (p <0.001); and insomnia (p <0.001). Family supervision (p <0.001) was protective in relation to the practice of bullying.




DISCUSSION

The results indicated that the children practiced more bullying than the girls. Other studies also indicate that children are more likely to be aggressors1,9. This can be explained by the interaction characteristics of children who, in general, are more aggressive with their peers, by the legitimacy that the use of violence assumes when it aims to gain recognition or exercise some power and control over the group of peers, as well as cultural demands related to the image of masculinity, domination and power10.

In regard to age, older students (15 years or older), both boys and girls, were the least involved in situations of bullying as aggressors. This data converges with the scientific literature2,11, since a natural tendency to decrease bullying with advancing age is identified2,12. However, it is important to highlight the existence of other studies that show that this reduction is only apparent, since what usually happen is a decrease in physical aggressions, which are easy to identify, and an increase in verbal and psychological aggressions, that have a greater degree of complexity to be recognized13.

On the color of the skin / race of the students, girls who self-declared yellow practiced more bullying, as well as indigenous and black children. However, this demographic data still needs other studies in the Brazilian scenario that has a large ethnic variation and can not, from the results presented, assign explanations to the phenomenon from that variable. Above all, when studies indicate that skin color is a factor that can increase vulnerability for victimization5.

Another relevant fact for the study was the indication that students of both sexes from private schools practiced more bullying than public school students. This data was already identified in the other editions of the PeNSE14,15. However, it is still observed that this reality is little explored by the studies on bullying that prevents the comparison of results and the construction of explanations for that data, but reveals that, regardless of the school being public or private, the phenomenon is a reality that needs to be discussed and confronted.

Regarding the family context, it was verified that, both in the case of children and in the case of girls, the practice of bullying associated with the variables: "catch at home" and "skip classes without authorization " According to the literature, methods of discipline used by parents or perpetrators based on physical punishment is a factor that increases the possibility of students reproducing aggressive behavior in schools. The research data are, thus, consistent with other studies that verified the association between bullying and experiences of physical punishment in the family context16,17. On the other hand, studies indicate that the establishment of rules and supervision in the family is a protective factor in relation to bullying6,18. This fact was corroborated by the results of the present study.

In the field of health, evaluated by the feelings of loneliness and insomnia manifested by the students, it was verified that for girls and boys there was an association between the practice of bullying and feelings of loneliness. The girls also mentioned episodes of insomnia. These data revealed sick psychological states, contrary to other studies that associate the tables of social isolation and mental suffering more to the victims19. The data alerted for the development of pictures of suffering also among the aggressors of bullying5. This suffering affects the health, quality of life and development of students identified as aggressors, an aspect that requires further studies to be deepened.

Regarding the health risk behaviors associated with the practice of bullying (use of snuff, alcohol and other drugs), it was observed that other studies confirm that student abusers tend to be more involved in situations of vulnerability when compared to others Student risk groups4,20. In adolescence, the adoption of risk behaviors is greater than in other phases of development and violence between peers can be justified by the time adolescents spend in school institutions. Health risk behaviors that are expressions of the group process of adolescents5. The seriousness of the issue is revealed when there is a perception that aggressive behavior and bullying are predictive of the increase in the use of alcohol and other drugs in adulthood, as well as for participation in acts of crime and violence at other times of the year. life cycle and in interpersonal relationships4,20.

Finally, in this study, variables that were associated with the practice of bullyingescolar were identified, considering differences and similarities between the male and female sexes. These results can be used in formative moments of health teams of basic care, helping in the elaboration and planning of intersectoral antibullying strategies, considering, for example, the objectives and goals of the Health in School Program (PSE). These strategies can be more effective when they consider gender issues, even when they refer to small nuances and the different experiences that children experience in schools, in families or in the community.

With regard to the greater participation of male students in the practice of bullying, the results suggest that it is important to think about the needs and health care strategies of adolescent men. In general, men perpetuate discrimination and violence, an aspect that makes up the process of socialization of the male sex. When practiced by adolescent men in the context of a group, violence can be valued as an expression of male identity and / or because adolescents can not identify other ways to resolve interpersonal conflicts. In this sense, to improve the quality of life and health of adolescent men who practice bullying, workshops to raise awareness about the phenomenon can be developed by health teams in basic care, stimulating reflection on the seriousness of the problem and their implications for the future, as documented in the literature and for that study, greater vulnerability for the adoption of behaviors that put health at risk.

The health teams of basic care can guide parents and caregivers, as well as help them identify behaviors that may indicate the practice of school bullyingen. In addition, as noted, the aggressors also experience some type of mental suffering and parents aren´t always prepared to identify symptoms of that nature (insomnia and isolation can be interpreted as natural in adolescence). Families can be clarified about the need to establish rules for children to comply with at home and supervise their relationship with colleagues. This can be facilitated when parents and guardians are aware of the importance of knowing the children's friends, where they are going and what kind of activity they undertake together. On the other hand, the adoption of risk behaviors for health requires actions with families, but also with adolescents. The workshops on the problem of the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs can be developed within the framework of the Health in School program and can have an impact on the reduction or minimization of bullying practices.

Thus, it is possible to emphasize that the study has three strong points: 1) the comparative analysis of data on the practice of bullyingentre children; 2) the revelation of contextual variables that may concur to the occurrence of the practice of bullying (pick up at home, low parental supervision and adoption of risk behaviors for health); and 3) the problematization of how the area of health can appropriate the study to propose antibullyingen actions the capillarity of primary care. However, the results presented must be interpreted considering its three main limitations. In the first place, it is a cross-sectional study, which prevents the construction of links on the cause and effect of the variables analyzed in relation to bullying. Secondly, the responses of adolescents may be subject to the effects of the phenomenon known as social desire, in which they have answers that they believed to be correct. Finally, PeNSE is a large national survey that not only addresses bullying, but different aspects. Other research may focus only on bullying and the relationship with context variables, adoption of risk behaviors and health issues. Also, qualitative studies are stimulated to reveal meanings and meanings related to bullying and the topics investigated.


FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The main contribution of this study is the identification that students who practice bullying, regardless of sex, present suffering and behaviors at risk to health. In summary, the contextual and family aspects seem to be factors that have increased the vulnerability of adolescents for participation and the perpetration of bullying. In addition, the practice of bullying associated with risky behaviors for the health and development of students. The results emphasized the need for antibullying programs that focus on multidimensional aspects and consider the differences between boys and girls, even if they are small. Health professionals, who work with the school community in basic care, earn subsidies with this research to guide and evaluate actions aimed at adolescents of school age.


REFERENCES

1. Cook CR, Williams KR, Guerra NG, Kim TE, Sadek S. Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analyticinvestigation. SchoolPsychol Q 2010;25(2):65-83.

2. Olweus D. School Bullying: Development and SomeImportantChallenges. AnnuRevClinPsychol 2013;9(1):751-80.

3. Mello FCM, Silva JL, Oliveira WA, Prado RR, Malta DC, Silva MAI. A prática de bullying entre escolares brasileiros e fatoresassociados, Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar 2015. CiêSaúde Col 2017;22:2939-48.

4. Silva JL, Oliveira WA, Bono EL, Dib MA, Bazon MR, Silva MAI. Associações entre Bullying Escolar e CondutaInfracional: Revisão Sistemática de EstudosLongitudinais. Psic: TeorPesqa 2016;32:81-90.

5. Oliveira WA, Silva MA, Silva JL, Mello FC, Prado RR, Malta DC. Associationsbetweenthepractice of bullying and individual and contextual variables fromtheaggressors' perspective. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2016;92(1):32-9.

6. Oliveira WA. Relações entre bullying na adolescência e interações familiares: do singular ao plural [tese]. RibeirãoPreto, SP: Universidade de São Paulo; 2017.

7. Morris EB, Zhang B, Bondy SJ. Bullying and Smoking: ExaminingtheRelationships in Ontario Adolescents. J SchoolHealth 2006;76(9):465-70.

8. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE 2015). Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2016. 132p.

9. Morales JF, Yubero S, Larrañaga E. Gender and Bullying: Application of a Three-Factor Model of GenderStereotyping. Sex Roles 2016;74(3):169-80.

10. Silva MAI, Pereira B, Mendonca D, Nunes B, Oliveira WA. Theinvolvement of girls and boyswith bullying: ananalysis of genderdifferences. Int J Environ Res PublicHealth 2013;10(12):6820-31.

11. Álvarez-García D, García T, Núñez JC. Predictors of school bullying perpetration in adolescence: A systematicreview. AggressViolentBehavr 2015;23:126-36.

12. Sijtsema JJ, Rambaran JA, Caravita SCS, Gini G. FriendshipSelection and Influence in Bullying and Defending: Effects of Moral Disengagement. DevPsychol 2014;50(8):2093-104.

13. Silva JL, Oliveira WA, Bazon MR, Cecilio S. Bullying: conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças de professores. Psico 2014; 45(2):147-56.

14. Malta DC, Silva MAI, Mello FCM, Monteiro RA, Sardinha LMV, Crespo C, et al. Bullying nasescolas brasileiras: resultados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE), 2009. CiêSaúde Col2010;15:3065-76.

15. Oliveira WA, Silva MA, Mello FC, Porto DL, Yoshinaga AC, Malta DC. The causes of bullying: resultsfromtheNationalSurvey of SchoolHealth (PeNSE). RevLat Am Enferm 2015; 23(2):275-282.

16. Knous-Westfall HM, Ehrensaft MK, MacDonell KW, Cohen P. Parental IntimatePartnerViolence, ParentingPractices, and Adolescent Peer Bullying: A ProspectiveStudy. J ChildFamStud 2012;21(5):754-66.

17. Zottis GA, Salum GA, Isolan LR, Manfro GG, Heldt E. Associationsbetweenchilddisciplinarypractices and bullying behavior in adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2014;90(4):408-14.

18. Oliveira WA, Silva JL, Sampaio JMC, Silva MAI. Saúde do escolar: umarevisão integrativa sobre família e bullying. CiêSaúde Col2017;22:1553-64.

19. Arseneault L, Bowes L, Shakoor S. Bullying victimization in youths and mental healthproblems: 'muchadoaboutnothing'?PsycholMed 2010;40(5):717-29.

20. Zaine I, Reis MJD, Padovani RC. Comportamentos de bullying e conflitocom a lei. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) 2010;27:375-82.
adolescencia adolescencia adolescencia
GN1 © 2004-2018 Revista Adolescência e Saúde. Fone: (21) 2868-8456 / 2868-8457
Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente - NESA - UERJ
Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 109 - Fundos - Pavilhão Floriano Stoffel - Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP: 20551-030.
E-mail: revista@adolescenciaesaude.com