Revista Adolescência e Saúde

Revista Oficial do Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente / UERJ

NESA Publicação oficial
ISSN: 2177-5281 (Online)

Vol. 16 nº 3 - Jul/Sep - 2019

Original Article Imprimir 

Páginas 22 a 31


Evaluation of individual lifestyle of school adolescents

Evaluación del estilo de vida individual de los adolescentes escolares

Avaliação do estilo de vida individual de adolescentes escolares

Autores: Maria Lucileide Costa Duarte1; Francisco Elizaudo Brito-Júnior2; Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira3

1. Professional Master's Degree in Health Education (Child and Adolescent Health) from the State University of Ceará (UECE). Social Worker by the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará (IFCE). Crato, CE, Brazil
2. Doctor in Biological Sciences (Toxicological Biochemistry) from the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM). Teacher at the Regional University of Cariri (URCA). Crato, CE, Brazil
3. Doctor Student in Human Movement Sciences from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Master in Human Movement Sciences from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Teacher at the Regional University of Cariri (URCA). Crato, CE, Brazil

Maria Lucileide Costa Duarte
(lucileideduarte@hotmail.com ou lucileide@ifce.edu.br)
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Departamento de Assuntos Estudantis, Campus Crato
Rodovia CE 292, Bairro Gisélia Pinheiro
Crato, CE, Brasil. CEP: 63115-500

Submitted on 12/12/2018
Approved on 18/03/2019

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How to cite this article

Keywords: Adolescent; Life Style; Quality of Life.
Palabra Clave: Adolescente Estilo de Vida; Calidad de Vida.
Descritores: Adolescente; Estilo de Vida; Qualidade de Vida.

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: It was aimed to evaluate students' lifestyle of the technical courses integrated to the high school of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, campus Crato.
METHODS: It is a transversal, quantitative and census study with the participation of 202 adolescents aged between 14 to 19. Three cases were not included in the database, resulting in 199 participants. It was used the individual lifestyle profile - Pentacle of welfare, and descriptive statistics (mean ± SD) using a significance level of p <0.05.
RESULTS: The students presented a regular lifestyle. The lowest mean occurred in the preventive behavior. The boys had better results than the girls in all components of the Individual Lifestyle Profile.

Resumen:
OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el estilo de vida de los estudiantes de los cursos técnicos integrados a la escuela secundaria de una Institución Federal de Educación de Ceará, campus Crato.
MÉTODO: Este es un estudio transversal, cuantitativo y censal de 202 adolescentes de 14 a 19 años. Tres casos no estaban en la base de datos, resultando en 199 participantes. Utilizamos el Perfil de estilo de vida individual - Pentáculo de bienestar y estadísticas descriptivas (media y desvío estándar), donde se adoptó un nivel de significancia de p <0.05.
RESULTADOS: los estudiantes presentaron un estilo de vida general regular. El promedio más bajo ocurrió en el comportamiento preventivo. Los niños tuvieron mejores resultados que las niñas en todos los componentes del Perfil de estilo de vida individual.

Resumo:
OBJETIVO: Objetivou-se avaliar o estilo de vida dos escolares dos cursos Técnicos integrados ao ensino médio de uma Instituição Federal de Educação do Ceará, campus Crato.
MÉTODO: Este é um estudo transversal, quantitativo e censitário com 202 adolescentes com idade entre 14 e 19 anos. Três casos não constaram no banco de dados, resultando em 199 participantes. Usou-se o Perfil do Estilo de Vida Individual -Pentáculo do bem-estar, e estatística descritiva (média e desviopadrão), onde adotou-se um nível de significância de p< 0,05.
RESULTADOS: Os discentes apresentaram um estilo de vida geral regular. A menor média ocorreu no comportamento preventivo. Os meninos tiveram resultados melhores que as meninas em todos os componentes do Perfil do Estilo de Vida Individual.

INTRODUCTION

The socioeconomic, political, cultural and environmental transformations caused by the technical-scientific revolution have influenced the behavior and lifestyle of individuals, including adolescents, influencing their quality of life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), quality of life is "the perception that the individual has regarding their position in life, considering the cultural context, values, as well as their goals, expectations, standards and concerns"1.

According to Nahas2, quality of life results from a set of individual and socio-environmental parameters that can be modifiable or not, thus characterizing the conditions of how the human being lives. He understands that lifestyle is a "set of habitual actions that reflect people's attitudes, values and opportunities in life"2. The author points out that these actions include eating habits, stress control, habitual physical activity, social relationships and risk behavior prevention.

It is observed that this parameter is something inherent in all age groups, including adolescence. There are biological, social and behavioral transformations that significantly affect eating habits, social, family, cultural and spiritual relationships, and in a way of disagreement or understanding with one's own self3.

In this direction, the relevance of the acquisition and maintenance of healthy habits aimed at improving the quality of life and health, through the encouragement of regular physical activity, adequate and healthy eating and sufficient sleep, restrictions on alcohol consumption, smoking, as well as leisure time, emotional and stress control4.

It is noteworthy that in adolescence, behavioral patterns and lifestyles gain room for training. Such behaviors will influence the pattern of future morbidity and health care. Considering that risk factors for chronic diseases may start during this period, this phase is perceived as essential for interventions and changes in adolescent habits and behaviors5.

Research applied in Brazil and worldwide, concatenated to the behavior of schoolchildren, proves excesses in the behavior of adolescents, raising the need for studies on the subject6.

In this regard, Farias et al.7 pointed out that high school students experience a phase marked by many discoveries, uncertainties and insecurities and, in general, adolescents are influenced by the construction of their personality, which may determine their way of life. During this time, incorporating more information about adopting a healthy lifestyle can be critical to your future well-being.

In view of the above, the objective of this study is to evaluate the general lifestyle of adolescent students in technical courses integrated into high school of a Federal Institution of Education of Ceará (IFCE) of the city of Crato.


METHODOLOGY

Study based on the research database "Sociodemographic and behavioral determinants of lifestyle and quality of life in school adolescents" of the Professional Master in Child and Adolescent Health of the State University of Ceará (UECE), in partnership with the Regional University do Cariri (URCA).

This is a cross-sectional, quantitative, census study conducted at a Federal Institute of Education of Ceará (IFCE). A total of 202 students participated in the research, and three cases were not included in the database, resulting in 199 participants for the analysis (111 boys and 88 girls). The age range of the students was between 14 and 19 years old, enrolled in the Integrated Courses for High School Technical in Agriculture and Computer Technician for the Internet.

Data collection took place in the last two weeks of February 2018, with the researcher present at scheduled dates and times in the classroom. The students participated in the research after returning the Informed Consent Terms (ICF), signed by their parents/guardians, as well as the Informed Consent Terms (TALE), according to the ethical standards required by Council Resolution No. 466/12. National Health.8

Students in situations of temporary or permanent leave, those who were not in physical and mental conditions to answer the questionnaires and students whose parents/guardians did not sign the consent form were excluded from the study. The wishes of those who did not wish to participate in the study were respected.

To assess Lifestyle, we applied the instrument Individual Lifestyle Profile, derived from the Pentacle of Welfare, validated in Brazil by Nahas, Barros, Francalacci9. It is a self-administered questionnaire, consisting of questions to be answered individually; on a scale from zero to three (zero means total absence of such a characteristic in the lifestyle and three expresses complete achievement of the considered behavior).

The instrument has 15 items to complete and participants are prompted to colorize the representative bands of each of the self-rated items with crayons. The more colorful the graphic representation, the more appropriate your lifestyle will be. The Pentacle of Well-being is represented in the form of a five-pointed star, each of which refers to a particular factor: nutrition, physical activity, preventive behavior, relationships, and stress2.

The data obtained were digitized in Excell 2016 spreadsheet and analyzed in R and Python 3.6 Programming Language. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were used, which allowed the construction of figures and bar graph construction according to the frequency of responses to the items, and a significance level of p <0.05 was adopted.


RESULTS

Lifestyle components were analyzed according to the average values of each dimension of the Welfare Pentacle. In the Nutrition component, the average was 1.29% and 1.22% for boys and girls, respectively. In the Physical Activity component, males had a score of 1.42% and girls, 1.04%. In Preventive Behavior, it was noticed an average for male students of 1.08% and female students of 1.02%; In the Social Relationship component, male adolescents had a score of 1.96% and girls, 1.80; In the Stress Control component, the scores were 1.59% and 1.37% for boys and girls, respectively. The overall lifestyle for male students was 1.46% and for girls it was 1.29%. All variables showed significant results, and the component with the highest score was Social Relationship and the lowest one, Preventive Behavior (Table 1).




In order to promote a better visualization of the results of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile, below is shown in Figure 1, which represents the five-pointed star that describes the five lifestyle-related factors2.


Figure 1. Wellness Pentacle Star
Source: Own authorship (2018).



Figures 2 and 3 present the percentage data of the responses of each lifestyle dimension (nutrition, physical activity, relationships, preventive behavior and stress control) separated by gender of the analyzed adolescents.


Figure 2. Percentage data, male and responses of each lifestyle dimension of adolescents enrolled in the Integrated High School Technical Courses of a Federal Institute of Education. EC 2018
Source: Own authorship (2018).


Figure 3. Percentage data, female and responses of each lifestyle dimension of adolescents enrolled in the Integrated High School Technical Courses of a Federal Institute of Education. EC 2018
Source: Own authorship (2018).



DISCUSSION

Knowing the factors that corroborate the development of a healthy lifestyle, especially in adolescence is of fundamental importance. The experiences in this phase are common to most people, but they are independent only of organic or economic issues, but also of the psychosocial context in which they are inserted, which focuses on attitudes and decision making (behaviors), making them a subject of needs, comprehensive and more specific10.

In this understanding, it is clear that the results evidenced in the lifestyle of the students of this study indicate a situation that requires care. This situation is somewhat similar to the study by Orsano et al.11, when assessing lifestyle and physical fitness in high school students from Demerval Lobão - PI. The authors observed an overall mean EV of 1.79%, which was classified as "regular". In the studies by Westphal et al.12, the overall average reached the much higher score (2.09%) indicating a positive lifestyle of the participants.

The average of the physical activity component observed in this study was similar to the outcome of these investigations, in which boys presented higher averages than girls. Similar situation found in the National School Health Survey - 201513, the Global School - Based Student Health Survey - 201514, and in international studies conducted in Kuwait, Indonesia, Guatemala and Mozambique. That is, it seems to be a worldwide trend for girls to practice less physical activity than boys.

The literature has recorded a higher proportion of active boys compared to girls and it seems that being male is a factor positively associated with a higher level of physical activity. This can be explained by the sociocultural context. From childhood, boys are motivated to exercise such as tree climbing, cycling, playing ball, while girls are encouraged to develop typically sedentary activities15. In addition to socio-cultural factors, there are also biological and educational factors16.

Given the above, it is interesting to motivate students, especially adolescents, to enjoy the physical school environment available to them, such as gymnasiums, sports courts, gyms, green areas, as well as other extracurricular activities. In addition to physical education classes, other mechanisms can be used to arouse interest in sports and provide innovative meanings to be added to the daily lives of girls and adolescents in general.

Alluding to the social relationships component, there was a general score very close to level 2, the minimum desirable in the individual lifestyle profile scale. Orsano et al.11 findings reached a score of 2.6%, considered "positive" for lifestyle. This same positivity (average 2.1%) was obtained in a survey with high school students from Alfenas - MG17, and in a study with middle-level adolescents from Canoinhas-SC where a "good" level was also reached, expressed in the score 2.3.% 12.

The social relationship component is one of the most relevant of the Pentacle. The social integration promoted by the insertion of children and adolescents in meetings with friends, group sports activities and participation in associations brings about mental well-being and balance between their values, culture and habits. However, currently, social relations have lost their spaces for technology, motivating adolescents and young people to join the characters of the virtual world, without knowing them personally, jeopardizing their health and safety18.

In reference to this component, good interpersonal relationships have been seen in the literature as a fundamental characteristic for the construction of a social identity. Seeking to cultivate friendships and better relate, the individual tries to better understand the social dynamics, having a more flexible position facing the existing barriers in society19.

This is valid for all stages of life of every human being and in this sense, through relationships; the adolescent expands his friendship cycle and is naturally invited to insert himself in the most diverse activities of his extra-family world.

With regard to preventive behavior, it is clear that the average was alert, requiring guidance and changes in the lifestyle of participants. These findings differed greatly from the results found in other studies with high school adolescents12, which found a score of 2.5%. Flausino et al.17 observed an average of 1.46% and Orsano et al.11 found a value of 2%.

Other research with adolescents who used different methodological instruments also showed warning signs. Participants were found to be involved in one or more risky behaviors, such as: insufficient levels of physical activity, low fruit / vegetable intake, smoking, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, involvement in fights, irregular use of condoms and sedentary behavior20-22.

In a systematic review of lifestyle, Pôrto et al.23 concluded that there is a consensus on the need for some attitudes to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Thus, it is understood that adolescents need to adopt preventive attitudes for their well-being, because according to the World Health Organization (WHO), most health threats are due to behavioral factors such as physical inactivity, substance abuse and eating disorders24.

Alluding to the Nutrition component, the overall average showed a critical position considering the positivity on the scale from score 2. Similar situation to that found in other research11-17. In a study by Vasconcelos et al.25, they found that 78.3% of adolescents ate at school with cookies, juices, snacks and soft drinks and only 21.7% ate fruits. Diverging some of these results, Maria et al.26 pointed out in their research that, in general, adolescents had positive behavior, but the habit of eating in fastfood restaurants was worrying. Already Farias, Souza and Santos7 found a satisfactory level in the nutritional behavior of their investigated, highlighting greater positivity in males.

According to Noll et al.27, the current profile of eating habits is based on high consumption of fatty products, especially rich in saturated and trans fats, simple sugars, sodium, preservatives and with small amounts of fiber and micronutrients, especially ready or processed foods for consumption to the detriment of fresh products. In addition, the habits formed in childhood and adolescence are likely to continue into adulthood and overweight is a risk factor for other diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and some cancers.

As for the stress control component, it presented an average similar to other studies11,17,26. Contrary to these findings, research has shown positive behaviors in this lifestyle component. In this element, Westphael et al.12 observed a score of 2.29% and Farias, Souza and Santos7 considered unsatisfactory behavior in a small number of adolescents.

In the conception of Flausino et al.17, stress is constituted by social, environmental and physical factors. Stress control is a continuous and vital obligation in urban life and the modern world. Situation required by the cumulative succession of stressors, which demand constant adaptation in the daily lives of individuals.

Therefore, stress is usually due to the lifestyle the individual adopts and the way adversity is faced. It is possible that the subject does not feel able to eliminate the situations that cause it, but the strategies to respond to these situations can be changed2.


CONCLUSION

This analysis demonstrated that the general lifestyle of adolescents in the technical courses integrated with IFCE high school in Crato municipality requires care. Males had more satisfactory results than girls in all components of the Individual Lifestyle Profile. Although both sexes were vulnerable, females had a higher degree.

It is worth pointing out that promoting a healthy lifestyle implies a better quality of life. It is also noteworthy that this promotion is the responsibility of the whole society, starting in the family environment and perpetuating itself in the various instances that support the adolescent, including educators in there.

The school has the physical education teacher as a motivating instrument for the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, and the sooner these habits are incorporated, the easier to be consolidated in adulthood. It is also important to look more closely at girls in order to identify which reasons interfere with adherence to better attitudes for their physical, social and mental well-being, since boys had higher scores than theirs.

It is worth pointing out a strong point of this research revealed in the participation of 60% of adolescents enrolled in 2018. However, some limitations should be portrayed: As for the Individual Lifestyle Profile instrument, it does not offer the researcher the result of EV, but rather the account of this construct, because it is markedly marked by subjectivity. As for the findings, these refer to the adolescents from the technical courses integrated to the high school of a federal education institution of the city of Crato/CE, and cannot be generalized to those who, for some reason, are out of school, to other high school students or for those who live in other areas or regions. It is also a cross-sectional study that does not allow cause and effect inferences.


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